Premier League January spending fell for the first time since 2012 with a quiet deadline day capping off a relatively low-spending window.
Deadline-day and January spending were less than half of last year’s totals, with 12 deals on 31 January totalling £50m – bringing the month’s spending to £180m, according to figures from the Sports Business Group at Deloitte.
January 2018 saw £430m spent by Premier League clubs, with £150m on deadline day alone.
However, the Premier League was still the highest-spending league in European football in the most recent window, outstripping Italy’s Serie A by around £140m.
The biggest deal on transfer deadline saw Newcastle break their record to sign £20m Paraguayan playmaker Miguel Almiron from MLS side Atlanta United – as well as signing Monaco defender Antonio Barreca on loan.
Wolves signed Atletico Madrid full-back Jonny Castro Otto for £15m after a successful loan spell.
The next highest fee was £7m as Ante Palaversa moved to Manchester City but immediately returned to Hajduk Split on loan.
Leicester signed Monaco midfielder Youri Tielemans on loan – sending Adrien Silva the other way.
Fulham confirmed the signing of Liverpool winger Lazar Markovic on a short-term deal 90 minutes after the deadline passed, having signed Hoffenheim midfielder Havard Nordtveit on loan earlier in the day.
Crystal Palace signed Chelsea striker Michy Batshuayi on loan, revealing the news after midnight.
Peter Crouch will have the chance to add to his 108 Premier League goals after joining Burnley from Stoke, with Sam Vokes going the other way.
Cardiff spent £4m on Reading midfielder Leandro Bacuna.
The only other Premier League signings saw Brighton recruit two youngsters and send them back to their clubs on loan.
Chelsea completed the biggest signing with the acquisition of winger Christian Pulisic from Borussia Dortmund for £58m, but they loaned the USA international back to the Bundesliga leaders until the end of the season.
The Blues also brought in Argentina striker Gonzalo Higuain on loan from Juventus for the remainder of the campaign – with the option to buy him outright for 36m euros (£31.4m) this summer.
Bournemouth were one of the busiest clubs, completing three deals. Striker Dominic Solanke came in from Liverpool for £19m, as did right-back Nathaniel Clyne on loan, while Wales defender Chris Mepham joined from Championship side Brentford for £12m.
Fulham also signed three, Besiktas winger Ryan Babel and their two deadline-day signings.
English youngsters Reece Oxford (West Ham to Augsburg) and Emile Smith-Rowe (Arsenal to RB Leipzig) completed loan moves to the Bundesliga.
Watford signed one player for their under-23s all month, while Brighton brought in three players – but loaned them all out to their previous clubs.
Burnley and Leicester made their only signings of the month on deadline day.
Tottenham will go the entire 2018-19 season without signing anyone after a second successive window without addition to their squad.
Liverpool, Manchester United, Everton and Southampton were the other sides not to make a signing during January.